No limitation with ordinary activities.
Mild limitation of activity; patient is comfortable at rest and with mild exertion.
Marked limitation of activity; the patient is comfortable only at rest.
Any activity brings on dyspnea; symptoms occur at rest.
Escala NYHA (New York Heart Association)
Valoración funcional de Insuficiencia Cardíaca
1. Rostagno C, Galanti G, Comeglio M, Boddi V, Olivo G, Gastone Neri Serneri G. Comparison of different methods of functional evaluation in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2000 Sep;2(3):273-80.
2. Franciosa JA, Ziesche S, Wilen M.Functional capacity of patients with chronic left ventricular failure. Relationship of bicycle exercise performance to clinical and hemodynamic characterization. Am J Med. 1979 Sep;67(3):460-6.
3. Goldman L, Hashimoto B, Cook EF, Loscalzo A. Comparative reproducibility and validity of systems for assessing cardiovascular functional class:
4. Manual of Heart Failure Management. Ed. John D. Bisognano, Mary Beth Earley. Springer, 2009.